Hello, Serosep has detected that you are using an outdated version of Internet Explorer. If possible we strongly urge you to update your browser or switch over to Chrome or Firefox so you can enjoy the full user experience of our website and avail of all the features!
Close This Message'

Enteric Pathogen Detection


Challenges of Enteric Pathogen Detection

Medical Scientists worldwide are faced with new challenges on a daily basis. Clinical Microbiology
Laboratories continually experience an increase in workload without securing additional staff or resources. Traditional culture techniques can take up to 2 - 6 days to yield results, these methods call for more staffing requirements and put additional strains on already busy Clinical Medical Scientists.


EntericBio realtime revolutionises the standard faecal / stool pathogen test and allows rapid detection of enteric pathogens within 3 hours.

Types of Enteric Pathogens

Enteric Bacteria

Salmonella
The genus Salmonella comprises two species - S. enterica and S. bongori. These species have more than 2,500 serovars, differentiated on the basis of their somatic and flagellar antigens.
Salmonella isolates from humans are serotypes of Salmonella enterica. Gastroenteritis is the most common condition caused by Salmonella species. Symptoms include abdominal pain, diarrhoea, nausea and vomiting, often accompanied by fever.
Shigella
The genus Shigella consists of four species - S. sonnei, S. flexneri, S. boydi and S. dysenteriae. These species are characterised serologically on the basis of the O antigen only, as Shigella spp. lack the H antigen.
Infection with Shigella spp. manifests as a range of symptoms from watery diarrhoea to dysentery with frequent small volume faeces containing blood, mucus and pus. The diarrhoea may be accompanied by fever and abdominal cramps.
E.coli
Strains of Escherichia coli that produce the toxins stx1 & stx2 are termed Verotoxigenic E. coli (VTEC). The toxins are termed “shiga-like” due to their similarity to the toxin of Shigella dysenteriae. Infections vary in severity from mild to bloody diarrhoea and may occur in any age group, although it is more common in children. VTEC are capable of causing two types of disease, namely haemorrhagic colitis and haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS). HUS is a life-threatening disease characterized by thrombocytopenia, hemolytic anemia and acute renal dysfunction. Serogroup O157 is the most common cause of these illnesses, but at least 150 non-O157 VTEC serotypes have been reported as agents of both sporadic and outbreak-associated disease.
C.difficile
Clostridium difficile is a Gram positive, spore forming, strictly anaerobic rod and a significant cause of nosocomial disease. C. difficile is the causative agent of several antibiotic-associated diarrheal diseases; these syndromes are collectively known as C. difficile infections (CDI). Toxigenic strains produce two toxins: A (enterotoxin) and B (cytotoxin) that cause the characteristic mucosal damage associated with Clostridium difficile infection. Toxin B is an essential virulence factor in C. difficile while toxigenic strains that lack toxin A have been reported. The demonstration of C. difficile toxins in diarrhoeal stools in conjunction with clinical data is an important tool in the diagnosis of CDI.
Campylobacter
The genus Campylobacter contains 25 species but only some of those have been firmly established as a cause of human gastroenteritis. Campylobacter jejuni accounts for approximately 90% of reported infections with the majority of the remainder caused by Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter lari.

Intestinal Parasites

Cryptosporidium and Giardia are the two leading causes of parasite associated gastroenteritis.
Cryptosporidium
Cryptosporidium is a genus of apicomplexan
protozoans that contains at least seven species
associated with human diseases with the most
frequently isolated species being C. hominis and C. parvum. C. hominis is mainly found in humans while C. parvum can also be isolated from cattle and other ruminants.
Giardia
Giardia is a genus of anaerobic flagellated protozoan parasites with a life cycle that alternates between an actively swimming trophozoite and an infective resistant cyst. The organism colonises and reproduces in the small intestines of several vertebrates, causing giardiasis with G. lamblia assemblages A & B most frequently reported in humans.